城市综合体的演变史

KPF建筑设计事务所2019-04-23 02:17:23

随着全球城市人口的迅速集中,人们对城市生活的多样化、活跃度及便利性需求日益增加。大量迁居城市的人口要求城市建筑具有多重功能,且运行良好,而资源短缺等全球问题对城市建筑提出了更高的多功能要求。真正将住宅、商业、文化和运输功能融为一体的城市综合体项目将各项活动并入一栋建筑或一个社区。在拥挤的城市中采用并细致地执行城市综合体项目是社会发展的必然趋势。

Compounded by global issues such as resource scarcity, the migration to cities is placing great responsibility on urban buildings to do many things, and do them well.  Mixed-use development, the physically integrated combination of residential, commercial, cultural, and transportation functions, consolidates activity within a structure or neighborhood.  In our densifying cities, the adoption and thoughtful execution of mixed-use development is a necessity. 

Trajan's Market, 110 AD


城市综合体并非新形态;古罗马时代建在多层建筑中,包含商店和公寓的图拉真市场(公元前110年)是世界上最早的城市综合体项目之一。历史学家认为建筑的骑楼曾是图拉真皇帝的办公楼,目前已经发掘藏书室遗址。汽车和电信技术在20世纪的崛起扩大了人们的居住范围,建筑物四散蔓延。过去30年来,越来越多的人口迁入城市,城市综合体建筑物经历了重大的考验和新生。期中,KPF对城市综合体建筑形式的发展做出了重大贡献

The mixed-use typology is not new; one of the first examples is Trajan’s Market (110 AD) of ancient Rome with both shops and apartments built in a multi-level structure.  Historians believe that the building’s arcades were administrative offices of Emperor Trajan, and the remains of a library have been excavated.  The rise of the automobile and telecommunication technologies in the 20th Century, meant dispersion.  Sprawl prevailed.  However, as the population has increasingly migrated into cities over the past thirty years, the mixed-use building has experienced a period of great experimentation and rebirth.  At each period, KPF has been a major contributor to the evolution of the mixed-use building type.


故事是从芝加哥开始的

IT STARTED IN CHICAGO


900 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 1989


KFP于1989年完成的北密歇根大道900号是壮丽大道最早的垂直、多样化大楼之一。项目融合了五大功能:以Bloomingdales为首的购物中心;四季酒店;大楼下部的办公楼;高层的托管公寓;规模居全市前列的大型停车场。大楼高260米,四个‘灯笼’状结构体构成大楼顶部,以美妙、统一的姿态融入芝加哥天际线。北密歇根大道900号是KPF设计的第一个城市综合体项目,目前是芝加哥第八高楼。

The completion of KPF’s 1989 900 North Michigan Avenue was one of the first buildings on Magnificent Mile with a vertical, varied program.  The building combines five major uses: a shopping mall with Bloomingdales as an anchor tenant; a Four Seasons Hotel; office space in the tower’s lower section; condominiums on the higher floors; and one of the city’s largest parking garages. With four ‘lanterns’ forming a crown at 260 meters, the tower punctuates Chicago’s skyline with a sophisticated, unified expression.  900 North Michigan was the first of its kind for KPF, and remains the 8th tallest building in the city today.


这个里程碑性的项目不单单对它所在的城市非常有利,它对它的开发商来说也极其重要,并且成为了一个非常受欢迎并且利润可观的地点。

This milestone project wasn‘t only great for its city, it was pivotal for its developers and became a highly lucrative and sought after address.


得益于租户和居民希望街面保持美观、引人入胜的共同愿望,每一个楼层的价值都得到了提升。北密歇根大道900号表明,同建筑元素本身一样,不同的功能可以相互聚集,产生新的协同效应,起到1+1大于2的作用。

The value of each floor benefitted from the common desire among tenants and residents alike for a streetfront that invited the city in.  It offered proof to the development industry that different uses, like architectural elements themselves, could be brought together to form a new kind of synergy, with a combined effect greater than the sum of its parts.



继北密歇根大道900号的成功之后,KPF承接了日本铁路中央双塔和车站的设计工作,项目位于日本名古屋,2000年完工,包括110万平方英尺的办公、一家有700多间客房的酒店、10个饭店、一个5万平方英尺的会议中心。日本铁路中央双塔的特别之处在于项目建于全世界最大的火车站——名古屋车站之上。车站含两条国营铁路线、两条私营铁路线、四条地铁线、日本铁路和城市公交线路以及新干线子弹头列车。项目分地下和地上两部分,可一览名古屋全貌,中间设置办公、餐饮、住宿、会议设施。项目将北密歇根大道900号的商业协同效应完美地融入整个车站,不仅以10~15层的高空公共空间和空中街道开创了垂直生活的先河,还连接公共交通,成为首个亦是最成功的公交导向式项目之一

From 900 North Michigan’s success, KPF was commissioned to design the Japan Rail Central Towers and Station, completed in 2000 in Nagoya, Japan that includes 1.1 million square feet of office space, a 700 + room hotel, 10 restaurants, and a 50,000-square-foot convention center.   What made the JR Central Towers extraordinary was the fact that they were built over the largest train station in the world, Nagoya station. The station comprises two national and two private railway lines, four subway lines, Japan Rail and city bus lines, as well as the bullet train Tokaido Shinkansen.  This project physically connects the subterranean to sweeping views of the city of Nagoya, with places to work, eat, sleep, and meet in between.  It took the commercial synergies of 900 North Michigan and merged them seamlessly with an entire nation’s transportation infrastructure. The project was not only pioneer for vertical living, with public spaces and sky streets to located 10 and 15 stories in the air, but its link to public transportation makes it one of the first and most-successful transit-oriented developments.

Japan Rail Central Towers and Station, Nagoya, Japan, 2000


连续获得的专业知识激发了KPF在亚洲城市综合体项目的猛攻,导致了城市综合体建筑演变的最多产阶段。

The expertise gained nagoya spurred an onslaught of mixed-use projects in Asia for KPF, Resulting in the most prolific phase of the mixed-use building evolution. 


The Landmark, Hong Kong, 2013


进入21世纪以来,KPF设计了多个备受关注的城市综合体项目,包括2003年竣工的东京六本木新城,迄今仍然是日本有史以来最大的私营城市改造项目。随后是中国的几个项目,包括2001年竣工的高端购物办公项目上海恒隆广场;2006年竣工的香港置地广场,其中包括商业翻新和扩建工程及精品酒店增建工程;2010年竣工的环球贸易广场,包括办公、世界上最高的酒店及地下的新建交通枢纽;2012年竣工的希慎广场,包括32个办公和商业楼层,直接连通铜锣湾站。

In the 2000s, KPF designed some of the most frequently cited mixed-use projects, including Roppongi Hills, completed 2003 in Tokyo, which remains the largest private-sector urban redevelopment in Japan’s history.  Several projects in China followed, such as Plaza 66 of 2001, a premier shopping and office address in Shanghai. In Hong Kong, The Landmark, also completed in 2006, included the renovation and extension of a retail development, and addition of a boutique hotel; the International Commerce Centre was completed in 2010, with offices, the world’s highest hotel, and a new transportation hub beneath; and Hysan Place followed in 2012 with 32 floors of offices and retail outlets, and a direct link to the Causeway Bay Station.

Roppongi Hills, Tokyo, Japan, 2003


环球贸易广场是Union Square填海工程的核心,建立了办公,零售,酒店,娱乐空间的新型城市中心,以及新的交通枢纽九龙站。

The international commerce centre tower is the centerpiece of the union square reclamation project, establishing a new urban center with office, retail, hotel and recreation spaces, as well as a new transportation hub, kowloon station.


International Commerce Centre, Hong Kong, 2010 


在此期间,当时的上海第一高楼、世界第二高楼——上海环球金融中心的建设接近尾声,并于2008年竣工。上海环球金融中心总面积38万平方米,设商业办公两用设施及上海柏悦酒店。主楼以两条象征着天空的巨型弧线造型,在97层形成梯形开口,成为上海浦东中央商务区闹中取静的幽雅所在。作为一个超高层项目,建筑设计的工作范围超越了建筑内和基地内的范围。同北密歇根大道900号一样,上海环球金融中心也是上海城市天际线的重要构成要素,自建成开始一直被视为上海的文化和商业符号。

It was during this period that the Shanghai World Financial Center, the tallest tower in Shanghai and second tallest in the world upon its completion, was completed in 2008.  The 380,000 gross-square-meter structure tower houses a mix of office and retail uses, and the Park Hyatt Shanghai.  The form, two arcing curves that gesture to the sky with a trapezoidal aperture at the 97th floor, offers a graceful moment of serenity amidst the frenetic environment of Pudong, Shanghai’s Central Business District.  At the supertall scale, the responsibility of the architect extends beyond the boundaries of building envelope and project site.  Similar to 900 North Michigan, the mixed-use typology took a visual and important place in the skyline. It became an instant symbol of the culture and commerce of the city.  


随着上海世界金融中心的建立,城市综合体建筑类型正处于国际建筑的前沿。

With the completion of the shanghai world financial center, the mixed use typology was squarely at the forefront of international architecture.


International Commerce Centre Observatory, 2010

 Hysan Place, Hong Kong, 2012

Shanghai World Financial Center, 2008


在继续设计高层和超高层大楼的同时,KPF惹人注目的垂直叠加设计公式也影响了事务所的街区设计。如何在城市公共广场中发挥摩天大楼的密度优势?答案是体量。在这方面,上海静安嘉里中心就是很好的例子。静安嘉里中心是以毛泽东故居为中心设置的城市综合体,包括两座塔楼、商业裙楼、酒店(508间客房)、活动中心及办公配套设施。静安嘉里中心是邻里历史特点与现代风情相融合的产物,是高密度生活与城市街道体验的结合体。沿露天通道内设置店铺,方便行人活动。地面层按人体比例采用照明、色彩、质地等建筑元素作精心整合,使塔楼有机衔接街道。与此同时,项目高楼联络两个现有的办公集群,显著完善了城市天际线。

While the firm has continued to design high-rise buildings and supertalls, KPF’s formula for the pronounced vertical stacked tower influenced the firm’s work at the neighborhood level.  How can the density of a skyscraper work within a communal town square?  This answer is scale.  An example is the Jing An Kerry Centre in Shanghai, the multi-use complex features two towers, podium retail, a 508-key hotel, an event center and office amenities arranged around the preserved house where Mao Zedong lived.  Fusing the neighborhood’s historic character with modern Shanghai, Jing An Kerry Centre combines high density living with of the city street experience.  Open-air walkways lined with shops welcome pedestrian activity.  Careful integration on the ground level using architectural elements in proportion to the human body – lighting, colors, and materials - connect the soaring towers to the street.  Meanwhile, the tall buildings visually mend the skyline by connecting two existing office clusters in the city.  


静安嘉里中心结合了高密度生活以及城市街道体验。

Jing An Kerry Centre Combines high density living with the city street experience.


Jing An Kerry Centre, Shanghai, China, 2013


在一个街区综合体打造过程中积累专门知识,在另一个街区综合打造过程中实施改进,不断提高项目质量。伦敦科文特花园以悠久的历史、深厚的文化底蕴和建筑内涵而闻名于世,其第一次总体规划可追溯到1609年。在科文特花园项目中,为了实现街区的整体改进,城市综合体思维延伸到了微调元素。科文特花园饱受拥堵、破旧的设施、密集的游客等问题困扰,成为令伦敦本地人敬而远之的地区。KPF运用城市综合体环境方面的专业知识把古老的科文特花园视作一个产生各种不同体验的功能实体。总体规划提出三大措施:公共区域改造、传统资产的保护与再定位、用新建筑更换不起作用的过时建筑。

The expertise gained in the creation of one mixed-use neighborhood led to the improvement of another.  Covent Garden, with its first existing master plan dating back to 1609, is a renowned district with a culturally and architecturally rich history.  In Covent Garden in London, this kind of mixed-use thinking was extended to fine-tune elements for the overall improvement of the neighborhood.  Plagued by congestion, run-down facilities, and intensive tourism, Covent Garden had become an avoidable destination for Londoners.  KPF’s expertise in mixed-use environments allowed the firm to believe in this historic section of London as a single functioning entity that could sponsor a great diversity of experience.  Three major actions are proposed in the master plan: public realm improvements, conservation and re-positioning of the heritage assets, and the replacement of non-contributing outdated buildings with new architecture. 


KPF在相近的国际化城市项目中所获得的知识已经使KPF能够承接这一历史悠久的社区,并将其改造为世界级的城市综合体街区。

The Knowledge gained from KPF’s projects in nearly international city has primed KPF to take on this historic neighborhood and convert it into a world-class urban mixed use district.


Covent Garden, London, In progress


21世纪以来的项目体现了综合考虑建筑体量和整个地区体量的全新的城市综合体设计手法。项目集文化场所、公园绿地、可通行购物区、可通行娱乐区及无缝的交通连接于一体,丰富了所在城市的肌理,不仅吸引了大量游客,还吸引优质租户前来租赁楼层,从而在城市的活力中心占据一席之地。在亚洲发展得如火如荼,取得文化效益和经济效益双丰收的城市综合体项目引起了踌躇满志的欧美开发商的注意,纷纷委托KPF及其他事务所承担欧美地区的项目设计。

The projects of the early 2000s represented a new approach to mixed-use design that coalesced at the scale of a building, but also at the scale of entire districts.  The integration of cultural spaces, public parks, walkable shopping and entertainment areas, and seamless transit connections enriched the urban fabric in their cities.  These districts attracted many visitors and lured blue-chip tenants to lease tower floors in order to secure a place at the most vibrant addresses in their cities.  The cultural and financial success of the golden age of mixed-use development in Asia attracted the attention of ambitious developers in Europe and in the United States.  KPF and many of our peers have since been commissioned for projects in these regions.


当今最大的和最引人注目的城市综合体开发是曼哈顿最西边Related公司的哈德逊广场项目。

The largest and most notable mixed use development today is the related companies' hudson yards on the far west side of manhattan.

55 Hudson Yards, New York, Under Construction

10 Hudson Yards, New York, 2016


哈德逊广场是美国有史以来最大的私人房地产开发项目,一期项目的建设面积达到11,340,000平方英尺。拥有20多年城市综合体设计经验的KPF负责主持项目的设计工作。有机协调基础设施和建筑设计的人性化设计方法是哈德逊广场项目的根本特点。为了实现Related公司的宏伟蓝图,用两个平台串起长岛铁路公司30多条在用的铁轨。目前正在铁路站场顶上建设52层和90层的大楼。建成后的大楼将穿过平台上升,沉箱桩钻至两条铁路线中间的基岩,为结构提供支撑。哈德逊广场集公私、交通、零售、商业、居住和教育为一体,是继洛克菲勒中心之后纽约最复杂的城市综合体项目。

The largest private real estate development in the history of the United States, the first phase of Hudson Yards will see 11,340,000 square feet of construction. Drawing on the experience gained over 20 years in complex, mixed-use construction, KPF is leading the design of the development.  Hudson Yards’ defining characteristic is the humanistic design approach to seamlessly blending infrastructure with architectural designs.  To complete Related’s ambitious master plan, two platforms will bridge 30 active Long Island Rail Road train tracks.  Two towers, at 52 stories and 90 stories respectively, are now under construction atop of the rail yards.  Finished buildings will extend through the platform and rise above, with caissons drilled deep into the bedrock between rail lines to support the structures.  The combination of the public and private interests, transportation, retail, commerce, residences and education makes Hudson Yards the most complex mixed-use project in New York since Rockefeller Center.  

Hudson Yards Plaza, New York, Under Construction


城市综合体形态走到哪里,火到哪里。在芝加哥,北密歇根大道900号开创壮丽大道的发展先例。在日本,六本木新城和日本铁路中央双塔成为人口大城市中的交通基础设施和联系交织的城市社区。在中国,上海环球金融中心和环球贸易广场分别成为上海和香港的垂直密度和文化符号。现在,KPF把全球城市综合体项目的优势带到了纽约和全美。随着城市的不断发展,城市综合体建筑将成为提高人性化程度的重要工具,对城市的长期发展具有举足轻重的意义。

The popularity of the mixed-use typology has traveled where it is needed. In Chicago, 900 North Michigan set a precedent from which Magnificent Mile grew.  In Japan, Roppongi Hills and JR Central towers provided transportation infrastructure and tight-knit urban community in the country’s most populous cities.  Spreading to China, projects like the Shanghai World Financial Center and International Commerce Centre, implemented much-needed vertical density and cultural symbolism in Shanghai and Hong Kong.  Now, in New York and throughout the USA, development is benefitting from KPF’s global experience in mixed-use architecture.  As cities continue to grow, the mixed-use building will serve as an important tool to densify a humanizing manner, and will be critical to the success of the city in the future.

Hudson Yards, New York, Completion 2025

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